Human Microbiome Project

The Human Microbiome (HMP) is the collection of all the microorganisms living in association with the human body. These communities consist of a variety of microorganisms including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria and viruses. Bacteria in an average human body number ten times more than human cells, for a total of about 1000 more genes than are present in the human genome. Because of their small size, however, microorganisms make up only about 1 to 3 percent of our body mass (that's 2 to 6 pounds of bacteria in a 200-pound adult). These microbes are generally not harmful to us, in fact they are essential for maintaining health.

For example, they produce some vitamins that we do not have the genes to make, break down our food to extract nutrients we need to survive, teach our immune systems how to recognize dangerous invaders and even produce helpful anti-inflammatory compounds that fight off other disease-causing microbes. An ever-growing number of studies have demonstrated that changes in the composition of our microbiomes correlate with numerous disease states, raising the possibility that manipulation of these communities could be used to treat disease.

Funding

This project was funded through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant #1U54AI084844-01.

Publications

PloS one. 2013-01-01; 8.5: e63139.
Analyses of the stability and core taxonomic memberships of the human microbiome
Li K, Bihan M, Methé BA
PMID: 23671663
Nature. 2012-06-13; 486.7402: 215-21.
A framework for human microbiome research
Methé BA, Human Microbiome Project Consortium, Nelson KE, Pop M, Creasy HH, Giglio MG, Huttenhower C, Gevers D, Petrosino JF, Abubucker S, Badger JH, Chinwalla AT, Earl AM, FitzGerald MG, Fulton RS, Hallsworth-Pepin K, Lobos EA, Madupu R, Magrini V, Martin JC, Mitreva M, Muzny DM, Sodergren EJ, Versalovic J, Wollam AM, Worley KC, Wortman JR, Young SK, Zeng Q, Aagaard KM, Abolude OO, Allen-Vercoe E, Alm EJ, Alvarado L, Andersen GL, Anderson S, Appelbaum E, Arachchi HM, Armitage G, Arze CA, Ayvaz T, Baker CC, Begg L, Belachew T, Bhonagiri V, Bihan M, Blaser MJ, Bloom T, Bonazzi VR, Brooks P, Buck GA, Buhay CJ, Busam DA, Campbell JL, Canon SR, Cantarel BL, Chain PS, Chen IM, Chen L, Chhibba S, Chu K, Ciulla DM, Clemente JC, Clifton SW, Conlan S, Crabtree J, Cutting MA, Davidovics NJ, Davis CC, DeSantis TZ, Deal C, Delehaunty KD, Dewhirst FE, Deych E, Ding Y, Dooling DJ, Dugan SP, Dunne W, Durkin A, Edgar RC, Erlich RL, Farmer CN, Farrell RM, Faust K, Feldgarden M, Felix VM, Fisher S, Fodor AA, Forney L, Foster L, Di Francesco V, Friedman J, Friedrich DC, Fronick CC, Fulton LL, Gao H, Garcia N, Giannoukos G, Giblin C, Giovanni MY, Goldberg JM, Goll J, Gonzalez A, Griggs A, Gujja S, Haas BJ, Hamilton HA, Harris EL, Hepburn TA, Herter B, Hoffmann DE, Holder ME, Howarth C, Huang KH, Huse SM, Izard J, Jansson JK, Jiang H, Jordan C, Joshi V, Katancik JA, Keitel WA, Kelley ST, Kells C, Kinder-Haake S, King NB, Knight R, Knights D, Kong HH, Koren O, Koren S, Kota KC, Kovar CL, Kyrpides NC, La Rosa PS, Lee SL, Lemon KP, Lennon N, Lewis CM, Lewis L, Ley RE, Li K, Liolios K, Liu B, Liu Y, Lo CC, Lozupone CA, Lunsford R, Madden T, Mahurkar AA, Mannon PJ, Mardis ER, Markowitz VM, Mavrommatis K, McCorrison JM, McDonald D, McEwen J, McGuire AL, McInnes P, Mehta T, Mihindukulasuriya KA, Miller JR, Minx PJ, Newsham I, Nusbaum C, O'Laughlin M, Orvis J, Pagani I, Palaniappan K, Patel SM, Pearson M, Peterson J, Podar M, Pohl C, Pollard KS, Priest ME, Proctor LM, Qin X, Raes J, Ravel J, Reid JG, Rho M, Rhodes R, Riehle KP, Rivera MC, Rodriguez-Mueller B, Rogers YH, Ross MC, Russ C, Sanka RK, Sankar P, Sathirapongsasuti J, Schloss JA, Schloss PD, Schmidt TM, Scholz M, Schriml L, Schubert AM, Segata N, Segre JA, Shannon WD, Sharp RR, Sharpton TJ, Shenoy N, Sheth NU, Simone GA, Singh I, Smillie CS, Sobel JD, Sommer DD, Spicer P, Sutton GG, Sykes SM, Tabbaa DG, Thiagarajan M, Tomlinson CM, Torralba M, Treangen TJ, Truty RM, Vishnivetskaya TA, Walker J, Wang L, Wang Z, Ward DV, Warren W, Watson MA, Wellington C, Wetterstrand KA, White JR, Wilczek-Boney K, Wu YQ, Wylie KM, Wylie T, Yandava C, Ye L, Ye Y, Yooseph S, Youmans BP, Zhang L, Zhou Y, Zhu Y, Zoloth L, Zucker JD, Birren BW, Gibbs RA, Highlander SK, Weinstock GM, Wilson RK, White O
PMID: 22699610
Nature. 2012-06-13; 486.7402: 207-14.
Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome
Huttenhower C, Human Microbiome Project Consortium, Gevers D, Knight R, Abubucker S, Badger JH, Chinwalla AT, Creasy HH, Earl AM, FitzGerald MG, Fulton RS, Giglio MG, Hallsworth-Pepin K, Lobos EA, Madupu R, Magrini V, Martin JC, Mitreva M, Muzny DM, Sodergren EJ, Versalovic J, Wollam AM, Worley KC, Wortman JR, Young SK, Zeng Q, Aagaard KM, Abolude OO, Allen-Vercoe E, Alm EJ, Alvarado L, Andersen GL, Anderson S, Appelbaum E, Arachchi HM, Armitage G, Arze CA, Ayvaz T, Baker CC, Begg L, Belachew T, Bhonagiri V, Bihan M, Blaser MJ, Bloom T, Bonazzi V, Brooks J, Buck GA, Buhay CJ, Busam DA, Campbell JL, Canon SR, Cantarel BL, Chain PS, Chen IM, Chen L, Chhibba S, Chu K, Ciulla DM, Clemente JC, Clifton SW, Conlan S, Crabtree J, Cutting MA, Davidovics NJ, Davis CC, DeSantis TZ, Deal C, Delehaunty KD, Dewhirst FE, Deych E, Ding Y, Dooling DJ, Dugan SP, Dunne WM, Durkin A, Edgar RC, Erlich RL, Farmer CN, Farrell RM, Faust K, Feldgarden M, Felix VM, Fisher S, Fodor AA, Forney LJ, Foster L, Di Francesco V, Friedman J, Friedrich DC, Fronick CC, Fulton LL, Gao H, Garcia N, Giannoukos G, Giblin C, Giovanni MY, Goldberg JM, Goll J, Gonzalez A, Griggs A, Gujja S, Haake SK, Haas BJ, Hamilton HA, Harris EL, Hepburn TA, Herter B, Hoffmann DE, Holder ME, Howarth C, Huang KH, Huse SM, Izard J, Jansson JK, Jiang H, Jordan C, Joshi V, Katancik JA, Keitel WA, Kelley ST, Kells C, King NB, Knights D, Kong HH, Koren O, Koren S, Kota KC, Kovar CL, Kyrpides NC, La Rosa PS, Lee SL, Lemon KP, Lennon N, Lewis CM, Lewis L, Ley RE, Li K, Liolios K, Liu B, Liu Y, Lo CC, Lozupone CA, Lunsford R, Madden T, Mahurkar AA, Mannon PJ, Mardis ER, Markowitz VM, Mavromatis K, McCorrison JM, McDonald D, McEwen J, McGuire AL, McInnes P, Mehta T, Mihindukulasuriya KA, Miller JR, Minx PJ, Newsham I, Nusbaum C, O'Laughlin M, Orvis J, Pagani I, Palaniappan K, Patel SM, Pearson M, Peterson J, Podar M, Pohl C, Pollard KS, Pop M, Priest ME, Proctor LM, Qin X, Raes J, Ravel J, Reid JG, Rho M, Rhodes R, Riehle KP, Rivera MC, Rodriguez-Mueller B, Rogers YH, Ross MC, Russ C, Sanka RK, Sankar P, Sathirapongsasuti J, Schloss JA, Schloss PD, Schmidt TM, Scholz M, Schriml L, Schubert AM, Segata N, Segre JA, Shannon WD, Sharp RR, Sharpton TJ, Shenoy N, Sheth NU, Simone GA, Singh I, Smillie CS, Sobel JD, Sommer DD, Spicer P, Sutton GG, Sykes SM, Tabbaa DG, Thiagarajan M, Tomlinson CM, Torralba M, Treangen TJ, Truty RM, Vishnivetskaya TA, Walker J, Wang L, Wang Z, Ward DV, Warren W, Watson MA, Wellington C, Wetterstrand KA, White JR, Wilczek-Boney K, Wu Y, Wylie KM, Wylie T, Yandava C, Ye L, Ye Y, Yooseph S, Youmans BP, Zhang L, Zhou Y, Zhu Y, Zoloth L, Zucker JD, Birren BW, Gibbs RA, Highlander SK, Methé BA, Nelson KE, Petrosino JF, Weinstock GM, Wilson RK, White O
PMID: 22699609
PloS one. 2012-01-01; 7.5: e32118.
Analyses of the microbial diversity across the human microbiome
Li K, Bihan M, Yooseph S, Methé BA
PMID: 22719823
PloS one. 2012-01-01; 7.5: e39315.
Evaluation of 16S rDNA-based community profiling for human microbiome research
Ward DV, Gevers D, Giannoukos G, Earl AM, Methé BA, Sodergren E, Feldgarden M, Ciulla DM, Tabbaa D, Arze C, Appelbaum E, Aird L, Anderson S, Ayvaz T, Belter E, Bihan M, Bloom T, Crabtree J, Courtney L, Carmichael L, Dooling D, Erlich RL, Farmer C, Fulton L, Fulton R, Gao H, Gill JA, Haas BJ, Hemphill L, Hall O, Hamilton SG, Hepburn TA, Lennon NJ, Joshi V, Kells C, Kovar CL, Kalra D, Li K, Lewis L, Leonard S, Muzny DM, Mardis E, Mihindukulasuriya K, Magrini V, O'Laughlin M, Pohl C, Qin X, Ross K, Ross MC, Rogers YH, Singh N, Shang Y, Wilczek-Boney K, Wortman JR, Worley KC, Youmans BP, Yooseph S, Zhou Y, Schloss PD, Wilson R, Gibbs RA, Nelson KE, Weinstock G, DeSantis TZ, Petrosino JF, Highlander SK, Birren BW
PMID: 22720093
Journal of bacteriology. 2011-08-01; 193.16: 4025-6.
Draft genome sequence of Bacteroides vulgatus PC510, a strain isolated from human feces
Cuív PÓ, Klaassens ES, Durkin AS, Harkins DM, Foster L, McCorrison J, Torralba M, Nelson KE, Morrison M
PMID: 21622758
Nature biotechnology. 2011-05-01; 29.5: 415-20.
Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications
Yilmaz P, Kottmann R, Field D, Knight R, Cole JR, Amaral-Zettler L, Gilbert JA, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Johnston A, Cochrane G, Vaughan R, Hunter C, Park J, Morrison N, Rocca-Serra P, Sterk P, Arumugam M, Bailey M, Baumgartner L, Birren BW, Blaser MJ, Bonazzi V, Booth T, Bork P, Bushman FD, Buttigieg PL, Chain PS, Charlson E, Costello EK, Huot-Creasy H, Dawyndt P, Desantis T, Fierer N, Fuhrman JA, Gallery RE, Gevers D, Gibbs RA, San Gil I, Gonzalez A, Gordon JI, Guralnick R, Hankeln W, Highlander S, Hugenholtz P, Jansson J, Kau AL, Kelley ST, Kennedy J, Knights D, Koren O, Kuczynski J, Kyrpides N, Larsen R, Lauber CL, Legg T, Ley RE, Lozupone CA, Ludwig W, Lyons D, Maguire E, Methé BA, Meyer F, Muegge B, Nakielny S, Nelson KE, Nemergut D, Neufeld JD, Newbold LK, Oliver AE, Pace NR, Palanisamy G, Peplies J, Petrosino J, Proctor L, Pruesse E, Quast C, Raes J, Ratnasingham S, Ravel J, Relman DA, Assunta-Sansone S, Schloss PD, Schriml L, Sinha R, Smith MI, Sodergren E, Spo A, Stombaugh J, Tiedje JM, Ward DV, Weinstock GM, Wendel D, White O, Whiteley A, Wilke A, Wortman JR, Yatsunenko T, Glöckner FO
PMID: 21552244
PloS one. 2010-12-31; 5.12: e15220.
Robust computational analysis of rRNA hypervariable tag datasets
Sipos M, Jeraldo P, Chia N, Qu A, Dhillon AS, Konkel ME, Nelson KE, White BA, Goldenfeld N
PMID: 21217830
Molecular oral microbiology. 2010-10-01; 25.5: 357-67.
Using DGGE profiling to develop a novel culture medium suitable for oral microbial communities
Tian Y, He X, Torralba M, Yooseph S, Nelson KE, Lux R, McLean JS, Yu G, Shi W
PMID: 20883224
The ISME journal. 2010-08-01; 4.8: 962-74.
Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of 10 healthy individuals
Bik EM, Long CD, Armitage GC, Loomer P, Emerson J, Mongodin EF, Nelson KE, Gill SR, Fraser-Liggett CM, Relman DA
PMID: 20336157
BMC research notes. 2010-07-15; 3.199.
ANDES: Statistical tools for the ANalyses of DEep Sequencing
Li K, Venter E, Yooseph S, Stockwell TB, Eckerle LD, Denison MR, Spiro DJ, Methé BA
PMID: 20633290
Applied and environmental microbiology. 2010-06-01; 76.12: 3886-97.
Diversity of 16S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes
Pei AY, Oberdorf WE, Nossa CW, Agarwal A, Chokshi P, Gerz EA, Jin Z, Lee P, Yang L, Poles M, Brown SM, Sotero S, Desantis T, Brodie E, Nelson K, Pei Z
PMID: 20418441
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2010-05-21; 328.5981: 994-9.
A catalog of reference genomes from the human microbiome
Human Microbiome Jumpstart Reference Strains Consortium, Nelson KE, Weinstock GM, Highlander SK, Worley KC, Creasy HH, Wortman JR, Rusch DB, Mitreva M, Sodergren E, Chinwalla AT, Feldgarden M, Gevers D, Haas BJ, Madupu R, Ward DV, Birren BW, Gibbs RA, Methe B, Petrosino JF, Strausberg RL, Sutton GG, White OR, Wilson RK, Durkin S, Giglio MG, Gujja S, Howarth C, Kodira CD, Kyrpides N, Mehta T, Muzny DM, Pearson M, Pepin K, Pati A, Qin X, Yandava C, Zeng Q, Zhang L, Berlin AM, Chen L, Hepburn TA, Johnson J, McCorrison J, Miller J, Minx P, Nusbaum C, Russ C, Sykes SM, Tomlinson CM, Young S, Warren WC, Badger J, Crabtree J, Markowitz VM, Orvis J, Cree A, Ferriera S, Fulton LL, Fulton RS, Gillis M, Hemphill LD, Joshi V, Kovar C, Torralba M, Wetterstrand KA, Abouellleil A, Wollam AM, Buhay CJ, Ding Y, Dugan S, FitzGerald MG, Holder M, Hostetler J, Clifton SW, Allen-Vercoe E, Earl AM, Farmer CN, Liolios K, Surette MG, Xu Q, Pohl C, Wilczek-Boney K, Zhu D
PMID: 20489017
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2009-10-09; 326.5950: 236-7.
Genomics. Genome project standards in a new era of sequencing
Chain PS, Grafham DV, Fulton RS, FitzGerald MG, Hostetler J, Muzny D, Ali J, Birren B, Bruce DC, Buhay C, Cole JR, Ding Y, Dugan S, Field D, Garrity GM, Gibbs R, Graves T, Han CS, Harrison SH, Highlander S, Hugenholtz P, Khouri HM, Kodira CD, Kolker E, Kyrpides NC, Lang D, Lapidus A, Malfatti SA, Markowitz V, Metha T, Nelson KE, Parkhill J, Pitluck S, Qin X, Read TD, Schmutz J, Sozhamannan S, Sterk P, Strausberg RL, Sutton G, Thomson NR, Tiedje JM, Weinstock G, Wollam A, Genomic Standards Consortium Human Microbiome Project Jumpstart Consortium, Detter JC
PMID: 19815760
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2006-06-02; 312.5778: 1355-9.
Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome
Gill SR, Pop M, Deboy RT, Eckburg PB, Turnbaugh PJ, Samuel BS, Gordon JI, Relman DA, Fraser-Liggett CM, Nelson KE
PMID: 16741115
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006-01-17; 103.3: 732-7.
Molecular analysis of the bacterial microbiota in the human stomach
Bik EM, Eckburg PB, Gill SR, Nelson KE, Purdom EA, Francois F, Perez-Perez G, Blaser MJ, Relman DA
PMID: 16407106
Science (New York, N.Y.). 2005-06-10; 308.5728: 1635-8.
Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora
Eckburg PB, Bik EM, Bernstein CN, Purdom E, Dethlefsen L, Sargent M, Gill SR, Nelson KE, Relman DA
PMID: 15831718
13-Jun-2012
Press Release

JCVI Researchers, as Part of NIH Human Microbiome Project Consortium, Publish Papers Detailing the Variety and Abundance of Microbes Living on and in the Human Body

Study Represents Largest Group of Healthy Individuals Studied to Date

JCVI also Details its Metagenomics Reports (METAREP) Open Source Bioinformatics Tool

20-May-2010
Press Release

Venter Institute Scientists, Along with Consortium Members of the NIH's Human Microbiome Project, Sequence 178 Microbial Reference Genomes Associated with the Human Body

Consortium Finds Greater Microbial Diversity in Human Microbiome than Previously Known