Increasing reducing power output (NADH) of glucose catabolism for reduction of xylose to xylitol by genetically engineered Escherichia coli AI05
Iverson A, Garza E, Zhao J, Wang Y, Zhao X, Wang J, Manow R, Zhou S
Anaerobic homofermentative production of reduced products requires additional reducing power (NADH and/or NADPH) output from glucose catabolism. Previously, with an anaerobically expressed pyruvate dehydrogenase operon (aceEF-lpd), we doubled the reducing power output to four NADH per glucose (or 1.2 xylose) catabolized anaerobically, which satisfied the NADH requirement to establish a non-transgenic homoethanol pathway (1 glucose or 1.2 xylose --> 2 acetyl-CoA + 4 NADH --> 2 ethanol) in the engineered strain, Escherichia coli SZ420 (∆frdBC ∆ldhA ∆ackA ∆focA-pflB ∆pdhR::pflBp6-pflBrbs-aceEF-lpd). In this study, E. coli SZ420 was further engineered for reduction of xylose to xylitol by (1) deleting the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE) to divert NADH from the ethanol pathway; (2) deleting the glucose-specific PTS permease gene (ptsG) to eliminate catabolite repression and allow simultaneous uptake of glucose and xylose; (3) cloning the aldose reductase gene (xylI) of Candida boidinii to reduce xylose to xylitol. The resulting strain, E. coli AI05 (pAGI02), could in theory simultaneously uptake glucose and xylose, and utilize glucose as a source of reducing power for the reduction of xylose to xylitol, with an expected yield of four xylitol for each glucose consumed (YRPG = 4) under anaerobic conditions. In resting cell fermentation tests using glucose and xylose mixtures, E. coli AI05 (pAGI02) achieved an actual YRPG value of ~3.6, with xylitol as the major fermentation product and acetate as the by-product.
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