Defining the risk of SARS-CoV-2 variants on immune protection
DeGrace MM, Ghedin E, Frieman MB, Krammer F, Grifoni A, Alisoltani A, Alter G, Amara RR, Baric RS, Barouch DH, Bloom JD, Bloyet LM, Bonenfant G, Boon ACM, Boritz EA, Bratt DL, Bricker TL, Brown L, Buchser WJ, Carreño JM, Cohen-Lavi L, Darling TL, Davis-Gardner ME, Dearlove BL, Di H, Dittmann M, Doria-Rose NA, Douek DC, Drosten C, Edara VV, Ellebedy A, Fabrizio TP, Ferrari G, Florence WC, Fischer WM, Fouchier RAM, Franks J, García-Sastre A, Godzik A, Gonzalez-Reiche AS, Gordon A, Haagmans BL, Halfmann PJ, Ho DD, Holbrook MR, Huang Y, James SL, Jaroszewski L, Jeevan T, Johnson RM, Jones TC, Joshi A, Kawaoka Y, Kercher L, Koopmans MPG, Korber B, Koren E, Koup RA, LeGresley EB, Lemieux JE, Liebeskind MJ, Liu Z, Livingston B, Logue JP, Luo Y, McDermott AB, McElrath MJ, Meliopoulos VA, Menachery VD, Montefiori DC, Mühlemann B, Munster VJ, Munt JE, Nair MS, Netzl A, Niewiadomska AM, O'Dell S, Pekosz A, Perlman S, Pontelli MC, Rockx B, Rolland M, Rothlauf PW, Sacharen S, Scheuermann RH, Schmidt SD, Schotsaert M, Schultz-Cherry S, Seder RA, Sedova M, Sette A, Shabman RS, Shen X, Shi PY, Shukla M, Simon V, Stumpf S, Sullivan NJ, Thackray LB, Theiler J, Thomas PG, Trifkovic S, Türeli S, Turner SA, Vakaki MA, van Bakel H, VanBlargan LA, Vincent LR, Wallace ZS, Wang L, Wang M, Wang P, Wang W, Weaver SC, Webby RJ, Weiss CD, Wentworth DE, Weston SM, Whelan SPJ, Whitener BM, Wilks SH, Xie X, Ying B, Yoon H, Zhou B, Hertz T, Smith DJ, Diamond MS, Post DJ, Suthar MS
The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced after infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the National Institutes of Health established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants that could potentially affect the transmission, virulence, and resistance to infection- and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE programme is a critical data-generating component of the US Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics, and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models and notable findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This programme is a template for the response to rapidly evolving pathogens with pandemic potential by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could reduce the effectiveness of countermeasures.