is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium known to be the most widely distributed pathogen in nature. It is commonly found in the environment (in soil and sewage) and in the intestines of animals and humans as a member of the normal flora.
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium, and is usually found in soil and in aquatic sediments. It produces a neurotoxin that is lethal if not treated immediately and properly. This toxin is the cause of the disease botulism. There are seven types of botulism toxin that are recognized and are categorized by their antigenic specficity. Four types (A, B, E and F) cause human botulism, while two types (C and D) cause botulism in animals.
Available Clostridium Genomes
Click on the organism of interest for a list of the genomes available.
Clostridium Strain & DNA Availability
Get information on how to obtain Clostridium
bacteria, DNA, antibodies and antigens through the NIAID funded BEI Resources
Genome Annotation at JCVI
resource provides updated gene model and functional curation following standardized protocols for all publicly available Clostridium
Community members are encouraged to participate in our annotation effort by registering and submitting updates from individual gene pages. Sign up using the link below to register for community annotation.
Clostridium Gene Search
Highlighted Gene Tools & Lists
resource offers several whole-genome and multi-genome comparative tools to help identify regions and proteins of interest. Homologous protein results are pre-computed using blastp and can be viewed using a number of our homology tools under the Comparative Tools menu. Sequence alignment of specific molecules can be obtained using MUMmer.
Protein ortholog clusters
Precomputed protein ortholog clusters (based on the blastp results) support a number of additional gene and genome-level reports and graphical displays, including those listed below. Each protein cluster is also displayed on a cluster report page like this one
resource provides pre-computed blastp results for each protein against every other protein in the database. Detailed results can be obtained via the individual gene pages' Protein vs. All Alignment link. ClustalW and BER alignments are also acccesible from this gene page tool.
Functional genomics attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genomic projects to describe gene and protein functions and interactions. Functional genomics focuses on dynamic aspects such as gene transcription, translation, and protein-protein interactions, as opposed to the static aspects of the genomic information such as DNA sequence or structures. Below we list the current tools available for functional genomics studies of Clostridium.
Genome Properties consists of a suite of "Properties" which are defined attributes of prokaryotic organisms including presence/absence of metabolic pathways and characteristics of a genome such as "human pathogen". These properties are evaluated by manual curation or computer algorithms.
SRI Pathway Tools
The Pathway Tools software is a bioinformatics software system for pathway analysis of genomes, and for creating Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs). A PGDB, such as EcoCyc
, is a bioinformatics DB that integrates genomic data with detailed functional annotations of the genome, such as descriptions of metabolic and signaling pathways. Pathway Tools was developed by Peter D. Karp
and coworkers at the Bioinformatics Research Group
at SRI International.
Pathways are manually drawn pathway maps representing the molecular interaction and reaction networks for metabolism, other cellular processes, and human diseases.
Here the top used tools and searches
in Pathema are listed. In the future users will be able to put their own customized favorite tools in this box.
Clostridium Gene Search
Clostridium Organism Search